Abstract : The IT industry in India has been growing at above 25% annually for several years now. Information Technology has emerged as a dominant sector of the Indian Economy. The current education offers a variety courses with all Combinations of words Computer, Information and Software with Science, Engineering and Applications. Software Industry in India had recognized growth in the last decade and is hoped to play a much bigger role in near future for growing Indian economy.
Knowledge Based Computer System(K.B.C.S) is a process for extending a knowledge base. Knowledge means information that can be used in making a decision process with understanding, accumulated experience. Many application areas of AI Research having appreciated mechanism to implement AI systems by using knowledge bases. I.e. Knowledge Based Computer Systems are required with desired implications in such application areas.
I. What is AI?
AI is a name given to Scientific Research. Its Origin is Japan; The primary goal of this AI Research is to develop an Intelligent Computer System. The term Intelligence means how to make the Computers do things at which the movement people do better, i e like Human Brain how the Computer can take its own decisions automatically depending upon the Situation. Thus it is having both Scientific and Engineering goals.
AI is the part of the Computer Science concerned with designing, Intelligent Computer Systems, that is systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in Human Behavior. Once again this definition will raise the following question. “Intelligent Behavior “, in view of the difficulty in defining the Intelligence, Let us try to characterize that is a list of number of characteristics by which we can identify the Human Intelligence. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand Human Intelligence.
The term AI is referred to known as Intelligent Behavior in Artifacts. Artifacts are Man-Made Machines. Thus AI is related with Psychology, Cognition, and Behavioral Science. Thus we have to consider the following Characteristics that are passed by an AI System. 1. Perception 2. Reasoning 3. Learning 4. Communicating 5. Acting in Complex Environments.
what is Intelligence?
An Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines. The following are some measurable characteristics of Intelligence that are recognized by Computer System.
2. To make sense of out of ambiguity to the contradictory messages.
3. To recognize the relative importance of different elements of a situation.
4. To find similarities between situations despite the differences which my separate them.
5. To draw distinction between situations despite similarities, which may link them. AI is the
Branch of Computer Science dealing with symbolic non algorithmic methods of a problem
But AI researchers shown people are more Intelligent than Computers, AI tries to improve the performance of computers in activities that people do better, then the goal of AI is to make computers more Intelligent. AI researches have show that “ Intelligence requires knowledge”, and knowledge itself posses some less desirable activities of Real Life Situations.
- It voluminous
- It is hard characterize accurately
- It is constantly changing
AI is the branch of computer science that deals with ways of representing knowledge by using symbols rather than numbers and with rules of thumb, or heuristic methods for processing.
AI works with pattern matching methods, which attempts to describe objects, events and processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and computational relationships.
While reading the above definitions one must be remember keeping in mind that the AI is fast new developing science.
II. Will Artificial Intelligence Applications Rules Future Information Technology.?
AI Applications are the talk of IT industry today. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Expert systems(Knowledge based Computer Systems) are the major concern of AI research.
KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPUTER SYSTEM
The KBCS division carries out Research and Development in selected sub fields of Artificial Intelligence. KBCS is a computer program designed to act as an expert in specific field of knowledge. These are designed to solve complex problems. KBCS simulates the human reasoning process and applying specific knowledge and inferences.
Characteristics of KBCS:
1. Expand the Knowledge Base for the domain of interest.
2. Support for Heuristics Analysis
3. Application of Search Techniques.
4. It is having capability to infer new knowledge from existing knowledge.
5. use the symbol processing approach
6. Ability to explain its own reasoning.
KBCS can help acting as intelligent assistants to human experts or, in certain cases, even replacing the human experts.
Structure of a Knowledge Based Computer System.
The major components of an Expert System are High level Knowledge Base, Communication Interface, Inference Engine and User interface.
1.Knowledge Base : An expert system can give intelligent answers to sufficient knowledge about the field. The component of the ‘expert system’ that contains the system’s knowledge is called the Knowledge Base. It is vital component of KBCS.
Knowledge - Base consists of
Declarative Knowledge and Procedural Knowledge
Declarative Knowledge consists of Facts about objects, events and situations. Procedural Knowledge consists of courses of action. Knowledge Representation is a process of putting the Knowledge into the systems knowledge base inform of Facts by using above two types. While KBCS uses reasoning to draw the conclusions from stored facts.
2. Inference Engine : If the system has knowledge, it must be capable of using the knowledge in appropriate manner. Systems must know how and when to apply the knowledge. I.e Inference Engine works as a control programme to decide the direction of the search in KBCS.
KBCS uses different types of search techniques to fine the solutions of given problems. Search is the name given to the process of shifting through alternative solutions to reach the Goal state. The search is carried through search space. Problem is moved from Initial Sate to Goal State through state space. The Inference Engine ‘decides’ which heuristic search techniques are used to determine and how the rules in the knowledge base are to be applied to the problem. Inference Engine is independent of the knowledge base.
3. User Interface : User must have communicate with the system. KBCS helps its user to communicate with it is known as ‘user interface’ inform of bi-directional communication. The system should be able to ask much information to arrive at a solution or the user want to know the reasoning about the Fats. Thus it is important to have a user interface that can be used by common people..
KBCS DEVELOPMENT: The development of a KBCS may require a team of several people working together. There are two types of people are involved in the development of expert system. 1. Domain Experts 2. Knowledge Engineers. Domain Experts provide the information for the Knowledge Base. Knowledge Engineer develops the Knowledge Based Computer System. The following are the different stages in the development of KBCS
1. Identification: In this phase Knowledge Engineer & Domain Expert work together closely to describe the problem that the KBCS expected to solve. Such interactive procedure is typical of the entire KBCS development process. Additional resources, such as other Experts and Knowledge Engineers and reference Journals are also identified in the identification stage.
2. Conceptualization : This stage involved analyzing the problem. Knowledge Engineer represents graphical representation of the relation ship between the Objects and the Process in the problem domain. The problem is decomposed in to sub problems and their interrelationships are properly conceptualized. Then the identification stage is revised again. Such interactive process can occur in any stage of development.
3. Formalization : Both Identification & Conceptualization are concerned on understanding the problem. The process of Formalization means that the problem is connected to its KBCS, by analyzing the relation mentioned in Conceptualization. Knowledge Engineer selects the development techniques that are appropriate to required KBCS. He must familiar with
1. Different types of AI Techniques i.e heuristic search techniques and knowledge representation mechanisms that are used in the development of KBCS.
2. The KBCS tools that are involved in the development of KBCS
3. KBCS are in form of Rule Based& Model Based.
In Rule Based KBCS Knowledge Engineer develops the set of Rules. These are modified and revised by the domain expert.
4. Implementation : During the Implementation stage of KBCS Knowledge Engineer determines whether correct techniques were chosen or not. Otherwise the knowledge engineer was re formalize the concepts or use new development tools.
5. Testing : Testing provides an opportunity to knowledge engineer to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the system. That will lead to identify is there any modifications are required
The following example shows how different types of Control Structures that are used in the development process of KBCS by using symbol manipulation and IF………THEN implication is as follows.
Symbol Manipulation: In Expert systems (Knowledge based Computer Systems), ”Knowledge” is often represented in terms of IF… THEN rules of the form:
IF Condition.1 and
THEN implication (with significance)
If all conditions are true, then the implication is true, with an associated logical significance factor. While a set of rules is searched, an overall significance factor is manipulated, and when this significance becomes unacceptably low the search is abounded and a view set of rules is searched.
This structure of Expert Systems is most closely matched by the structure of logical programming (its computational model). In a logic programming language such as LISP & PROLOG. Prolog statements are relations of a restricted form called ”Clauses”’ and the execution of such program is a suitably controlled logic deduction from the Clauses forming the program. A Clause is a Well formed Formula consisting of Conjunction and Disjunction of Literals. The following logic program for family three Conditions of four Clauses.
Father (Bill, John)
Father (John, Tom)
Grandfather (X,Z) :- father (X,Y) ,mother (Y,Z).
Grandfather (X,Z) :- father (X,Y) ,father (Y,Z).
The first two clauses define that Bill is the father of John, second two clauses use the variables X, Y and Z to represent (express) the rule that if X is the grandfather of Z, if X is the father of Y and Y is either the mother or father of Z . Such a program can be asked a range of questions- from “ is John, the father of Tom?” [Father (John, Tom)?] To “ Is there any A who is the grandfather of C?”[Grandfather (A, C)?] .
The possible operation of computer based on logic is illustrated in the following using the family tree program. Execution of , for example “Grandfather (Bill,R)?”Will match each “Grandfather ( ) “ Clause.
Grandfather ( X=Bill, Z=R ) :-father (Bill,Y),mother (Y,R).
Grandfather ( X=Bill, Z=R ) :-father (Bill,Y),father (Y,R).
Both clauses will attempt in parallel to satisfy their Goals, such a concept is called OR – Parallelism. The first clause will fail being unable to satisfy its goal, search will continues to the second clause i.e., called OR – Parallelism.
The first clause will fail being unable to satisfy the “Mother( )” goal form the program. The second goal has “Father( )” , “Mother( )” , which is attempt to solve in parallel, such a concept is called AND parallelism. The later concept involves Pattern Matching methods and substitution to satisfy both the individual goals.
Grandfather (X=Bill, Z=R)
: - father (Bill,Y), father (Y,R).
:-father (Bill,Y=John), father (Y=Bill,R=John).
And the Overall Consistency
:- father (Bill,Y=John), father (Y=John,R=Tom).
Computers Organization supporting Expert Systems is a highly micro programmed(Control Flow Based). PROLOG machines analogous to current Lisp machines although we can expect a number of such designs in the near feature. PROLOG machines are not TRUE Logic Machines. Just as LISP Machines are not considered reduction machines liked by a Common logic Machine language and architecture.
Future Potential:- Further Developments in Future in the area of AI Research will be in hopeful manner.
Fifth Generation Project
Form the basis of what is called Intelligent Consumer Electronics. Further developments of this type of computer is motivated by the fact that these electronics will be the major money earning industry
Knowledge based computer system(K.B.C.S) depicted in AI applications having appreciated mechanism to implement AI systems using knowledge bases, it is found that knowledge based computer systems are to developed in suitable areas where knowledge can be represented appropriately with the desired implications.
While reading the above information of AI and the role of knowledge based systems depicted in AI applications one must remember keeping in mind that the AI is new developing science and knowledge based computer system(K.B.C.S) is a process for extending a knowledge base.